What is Smog?
A natural fog polluted by industrial pollutants results in a mix of fumes and fog. The term smog photochemical commonly we will use in this article.
Nowadays, it’s the most commonly used term to describe urbanized and often problematic air pollution that is accompanied or not by natural fog. However, there is a visible signification nearly always implied. Smog come in a vast diversity.
However, a significant contrast occurs between the photochemical pollutants that are caused by hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides released mainly through motor vehicles and, on the other side, sulfur-laden, often harmful smog that is produced through the massive combustion of coal and fuel oil. Both types contain carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and a variety of particulates.
Air that is contaminated by ozone hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons, either without or with natural fog present.
When sunlight is present, hydrocarbons and NO are involved in various chemical reactions that ultimately produce Ozone and other oxidants, which are secondary pollutants. But, Ozone can also be degraded through nitrogen oxide.
The levels of photochemical pollution in the air are usually proportional to the concentrations of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides and increase in strong sunlight and temperatures in the ambient, which can increase volatile organic emissions into the atmosphere by vegetation. The pollution levels are inversely proportional to the speed of the wind and the height of inversion.
Air pollution refers to the infiltration of particulates, biological material, or other hazardous substances in the atmosphere of the Earth, which could cause disease or death of human beings, or harm to other living organisms like food crops or the natural or built surroundings.
There is a consensus that over one billion individuals are exposed to pollution from the air each year. The effects of pollution of urban areas are link up to ten lakhs deaths as well as 10 lakhs deaths that are pre native every year. The cost of Air pollution in cities is round about to cost around 2 percent of GDP in progressed countries and 5 percent in under progress countries.
Fast urbanization has led to an increase in air pollution in major cities, particularly in the developing world. The majority of urban Air pollution in these areas can be attributed to emissions from cars caused due to the high volume of older vehicles and poor management, insufficient infra-structure, and poor quality of fuel.
Description of Smog Photochemical
Photochemical smog is one of the forms of air pollution resulting from the reaction of sunlight with airborne pollutants such as Nitrogen Oxides (NO) and removable organic compounds (hydro-carbons). Smog is a result of large scale industries in the modern age. Due to the industrialization process and the increase in motor vehicles, it is more prevalent in cities with arid, warm as well as dry weather.
Smog caused by photochemical reactions is sometimes called oxidizing smog. Oxidation reactions can be described in many ways. As regards Oxygen transfer, this refers to the addition of oxygen. Oxidation is also defined as the reduction in Hydrogen atom. The primary function of oxidation is explained by electron transfer. A rise in the oxidation number or the loss of electrons defines oxidation. The number of oxidation represents the distribution of charges, in the sense that the oxidation number shows the charge of an atom in the event that the compound is made up of ions.
It may refer to the increase in Hydrogen or the removal of Oxygen. The reduction could be a reference to the increase of electrons that result in a decline in the oxidation number.
What is the process of producing it?
If fossil fuels get burned, two of the pollutants released are hydrocarbons (from burning fuels that are not burned) along with Nitrogen monoxide (nitric oxide NO). Nitrogen monoxide is a reaction between oxygen and nitrogen to create Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which is a brown gas that causes urban fog. Nitrogen dioxide is also able to absorb sunlight and break down into oxygen atoms, which mix with oxygen in the air to create Ozone.
All of these will result in the combustion of fossil fuels, and the emission of carbon monoxide, which is then released through a process derived is released from Ozone.
NO2 + Sunlight –> NO + O
The oxidation number for the nitrogen in two is zero. Nitrogen in nitrogen oxide has been given an oxidation number that is +2.
O + O2 –> O3
NO’s nitrogen, Nitrogen oxide has an oxidation number of + two. Nitrogen in NO 2. has an oxidation value of + four.
O3 + NO –> O2 + NO2
Its nitrogen NO 2. has an Oxidation number of +4 while the number of nitrogens in NO is +2.
Reactions are triggered by temperature and sunlight dependent
Ozone is a poisonous gas that also acts as an oxygenizing agent. It causes damage to forests and crops as well as the eyes. It can cause breathing problems for people and increase their susceptibility to infections. It is extremely reactive and could be destructive to rubber and fabric materials.
Sources of Smog
- Dust from roads and construction sites
- Power generation
How to control Photochemical Smog
Each new car that is sold across the US Should attach a Catalytic Converter in order to decrease the emission of phytochemicals. Catalytic converters cause CO and incompletely burned hydrocarbons to react against a metallic catalyst, most often platinum, to generate CO 2 and H 2O. Furthermore, catalytic converters lower nitrogen oxides that are produced by exhaust gases to O 2, or O 2 and 2, which can stop the process of forming Ozone. Most of the scientists gave suggestions that pumping gas at night can lessen the production of photo-chemical Ozone by restricting the exposure of VOCs to sunlight.
Removal of Smog
- Smog Prevention – Plan and design cities to encourage natural circulation and cooling, as well as the opening and cleaning of watercourses that have been covered in order to allow for Evaporative cooling.
- Health – Increase awareness about the health effects and conditions caused by breathing in polluted air, encourage pollutant-related health checkups, charcoal masks, and activated charcoal and make available to the people with access to monitoring of pollution.
Measurements need to remove smog
- The major source of pollution in cities is the transportation system, and in particular, private automobiles.
- The majority of car pollution is caused by 30 percent of the vehicles.
- Diesel engines in buses and trucks generate more particulates.
- Tools and restrictions can cost a car.
- There is a possibility of opposition to public transport from a cultural perspective.
- Regulating and monitoring is a complex and extensive.
- Groups such as the WHO create international standards, however, national standards.
- Regulations by the government on pollution at emission points, like taxation on petrol, gas, and diesel.
- Utilization of catalytic converters to eliminate primary pollutants from the exhaust (tail) pipe of vehicles.
- The government could control the quality of the fuel.
- Regulating car-free zones.
- The afforestation process is used to increase carbon sinks and remove air pollution.
- Designate zones of conservation.
- spraying water on intersections to remove pollution from the air.
- Greening and re-greening of cities.