Rain water harvesting refers to the simple technology or process of conserving rainwater. It involves collecting, storing, and transporting water from roofs, roads, and other spaces. For later use, rainwater is collected from roofs and then redirected to tanks, cisterns, boreholes, wells, and shafts. You can also collect fog and dew with nets or other tools.
This process, from rainwater collection to usage, is done using different diverters. Many names around the globe know about the rainwater collection. The rainwater collection was still in its early stages. Many farms were still using rainwater cisterns to feed their livestock. As technology improved in water treatment, rainwater became a principal water source for many people.
History of Rain Water Harvesting
Rainwater collection is one of the oldest and most straightforward methods of self-supply water to households. People have used rainwater for different purposes in South Asia for thousands of years. It is almost impossible to determine which civilization first used rainwater harvesting. However, evidence suggests additional rainwater collection systems in 2000 BC in India, China, Mesopotamia, and Israel.
These systems typically used a large, solid rock to form a basin and seal it with clay and other stones. Then, using various diversion techniques, we can restore the water for drinking, washing, and other purposes.
Enormous cisterns were standard in the civilizations used for water collection methods. These cisterns were usually underground and could store 10,000 to 50,000 gallons of water. Traditional cisterns were also known as community cisterns. They used sediment traps before entering the large cistern, which could collect 1,000,000 gallons of water.
Rain water Collection/Harvesting in the Modern Age
The rain water collection was still in its early stages. Many farms were still using rainwater cisterns to feed their livestock. However, as technology improved in water treatment, rainwater became a principal water source for many people.
Why is rain water harvesting gaining popularity in today’s world?
The world is facing a growing need to address climate change. Water conservation can have a significant impact on the environment. Groundwater is the primary source of freshwater to meet the increasing demand from the industrial, domestic and agricultural sectors. In addition, the groundwater is essential for daily needs such as cleaning, toileting, and bathing. However, water wastage is a significant problem in modern societies.
While development has many benefits, there are also side effects to it. This development is affecting our natural underground water supply. Groundwater recharge is an essential step in the water cycle. Water use in constructing roads and cities and the growing population in Metropolitan areas cause water scarcity. There is a need for rain water harvesting. Stormwater is collected and sent to rivers or the ocean. Large amounts of water must reach the earth and be immersed into the ground to restock underground channels. Water sources are becoming scarcer because of this.
Rain water harvesting and groundwater recharging are two of the best ways to conserve water worldwide. We can use this water instead of traditional water supplies, which are on the brink of being exhausted.
Methods of collecting rainwater
Here are two main methods to collect rainwater: rooftop rainwater harvesting and surface runoff harvesting. We can use Rain collection system for many purposes, including irrigation, bathing, laundry, and flushing toilets.
Surface Runoff Harvesting
This method works best in urban areas where rainwater flows along the ground during rains. Then, we can direct the flow of streams or reservoirs to store the surface runoff.
We can store surface runoff within tanks, ponds, and reservoirs designed explicitly for this purpose. Incorporated are the efficient and effective water conservation methods (reducing evaporation). Many measures maintain healthy and clean water.
Rooftop Water Harvesting
Rooftop rainwater gathering is a method that captures water from roof catchments and stores it in basins. In addition, we can store water harvested in underground groundwater reservoirs using artificial recharge techniques.
We can install this system at the following locations
- Villas or Homes
- Schools, Colleges, & Other Educational Institutions
- Flats/Apartments, Multi-Story Buildings
- Government Buildings
- Industries, Factories, Mills
- Hotels, Restaurants, and Resorts
- Swimming pools, Stadiums
What Are The Benefits Of Rain Water Collection?
Rainwater collection is one of the most effective methods to support water conservation. The scarcity of high-quality water is a significant concern today. Rainwater is of high quality and pure quality and can be used to water crops, clean, wash, cook, and for other livestock needs.
There are many benefits of water collection, some of which are listed below:
- Lower cost
- This method helps to reduce your water bill.
- Reduced water demand.
- This technique Encourages water conservation and energy conservation.
- It increases the quality of groundwater.
- Landscape irrigation doesn’t require a filter system.
- The technology is simple to use, install, and manage.
What Are The Uses Of Collected Rainwater?
Rainwater harvested from the roof can be used in many ways, both inside purposes and outside purposes. Water harvesting systems can cut domestic water consumption by as much as 50%. The amount of rainwater used for a home depends on the water collection system, the size of the storage tank, and the household’s usage requirements. This water may need to be purified and filtered for specific purposes.
The most common uses of collected water are:
- For Cooking
- For Drinking
- Agricultural purposes
- For rinsing vegetables
- Toilettes (Cleansing and Flushing Toilets)
- Garden, House plants, and Outdoor plants
- Water for livestock, wildlife, and other animals
- Swimming pools
- Washing vehicles
- Cleaning of buildings